I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I I O O N N A A L L S S C C I I E E N N T T I I F F I I C C P P E E E E R R - - R R E E V V I I E E W W E E D D J J O O U U R R N N A A L L



Modern mass media, as an important means of informing the public, determines people’s consciousness, shapes their interests and determines the mood. It has also successfully incorporated the role of an educator from the very beginning. Thus, the media linguistics plays a special role in spreading the native Georgian language, as well as in raising the literacy rate of the population. Language is the main tool to guide human cognitive activity.


Although, there are many examples of media trying to comply with linguistic norms, modern broadcasting fails to maintain proper Georgian; digital media being particularly full of many linguistic and stylistic errors. It should also be noted that electronic media is the only source of information for many, especially the young people. Given the high social importance, journalists should be careful with dealing with the language.


The development and transformation process of mass media in the global information space is not only indirectly but also directly reflected, especially in the formation of the Internet media linguistics. The current social and political changes in the country have also affected the process of language deformation.


The scientific article deals with the influence of media language on the linguistic features of the Georgian society. It discusses the problematic issues of modern publicist thinking, focusing on the linguistic distortions that modern journalists are characterized with. The speech problem of media representatives is topical, complex and large-scale. Their speeches are the basis of the communicative interaction of the society, contribute to the linguistic influence, national identity, mutual understanding of people, perception of the world.


The media significantly influences the value system, mentality and literary norms used in any society. Violation of literary norms, which is observed in modern Georgian media, has a negative impact on the audience and the level of literary competence of the speakers.


Keywords: mass media, mass media linguistics, media texts, literary norms, TV discourse.


The present paper addresses the effectiveness of inter-regional and inter-governmental model of international cooperation in the field of higher education between European and Asian countries from the perspective of European educational system homogeneity. The critical argument pursued in the paper asserts that intra-regional homogeneity is key prerequisite for the inter-regional model of cooperation.


By applying clustering algorithm, we prove that European countries feature four distinct educational systems, thus demonstrating a high degree of dissimilarity regarding educational system design. Consequently, we suggest that integration in the field of higher education between the European and Asian countries should take place between economies constituting these regions, not between the regional blocks.


Keywords: higher education, international cooperation, educational system, institutions, culture.


The modern world depends on energy, the consumption of which is increasing, while the use of resources is becoming more and more intensive. It should be noted that imperialist Russia makes excellent use of this opportunity, which is reflected in the expansion and strengthening of its sphere of political influence.


As we know, all states hold energy policies based on national-strategic values and define national aspirations and priorities. Russia has a big amount of energy resources, which it uses quite purposefully. The main tool of the Kremlin’s expansionist policy is energy policy, which opposes European integration and increases its own role in the international arena. Despite the fundamental radical differences between the democratic West and undemocratic Russia, they still manage to find common preventive-cooperative relations in terms of energy policy. A clear example of this is the energy relations between Russia and Germany, which are complex and perennial.


The Nord Stream 2 is a project of global importance that explicitly increases the EU’s energy dependence on Russia, which may not prove as beneficial to the Brussels side as it may do to the Moscow side. Both Putin and his governance system are using their country’s resources and geopolitics “dishonestly” to exercise considerable influence on political space around them, serving the national interests of Russia. Therefore, in the eyes of the developed West, Russia is perceived as an aggressor and an undemocratic country, which creates a negative political landscape for both the European Union and the international political arena. That is why such maneuvering of Russia is not positively understood by any of the powerful states of the world, as this very project is found to be an integral part of world politics. The United States also supports this view. The Nord Stream 2, followed by Brexit, is the first international project and it is literally a dynamic action on how the energy relations between the EU and Russia can be continued. At the current stage, Germany’s political actions are more profitable and productive for Russia than for the EU, since this case carries the potential for the energy sector of the two parties to become more integrated.


The scientific article presents practical approaches to modern marketing in the commercial field. Market-oriented management focuses on the development of social marketing, therefore, the paper reflects the model of market-social activity evaluation mechanism. Of particular importance in this paper are the commodity, pricing, key and communication policy factors that influence the formation of consumer value. Developing a marketing excellence program in entrepreneurship involves combining the principles that marketers need to focus on in a competitive environment.


Marketing competence ensures the formation of a customer-oriented communication-behavioral climate in the company. Entrepreneurial facility marketing management is based on the concept of modern marketing, which involves the formation of new market thinking, the development of communication links between the company and the market. Marketing management can be considered as a set of measures for the organization of production-key activities, based on market forecasting and research to maximize profits at the expense of meeting customer needs. Marketing management in business is related to the agreement between the company’s capabilities and the requirements of the market environment to achieve the desired result. The article focuses on the principles that determine the effectiveness of marketing management – mutual benefit (ensuring financial sustainability and competitive advantage in the company’s view) and strategic orientation, strategic orientation. Ensuring the ratio), demand individualization (activation of social network development mechanism – the role of personal marketing in the development of a market option adapted to individual individuals), marketing integration and benchmarking. With priorities, since the overriding of consumer interests and their advantages Awareness ultimately leads to flexible market positioning and legitimacy – public recognition.


Keywords: Marketing Philosophy. Social Marketing. Research Hypothesis. Analytical segmentation. Market restructuring. “Marketing Perfection”.


Religion and related aspects are a very sensitive issue both in Georgia and in the world. Consequently, incorrect coverage of such issues may lead to the escalation of strong public controversy and conflicts. As the media is generally considered to be the best tool for shaping public opinion, the journalist must take into account ethical norms and relevant legislation in the process of covering these issues as well as be guided by internationally accepted standards of religious coverage.


Digesting religious topics and preparing a media product on related issues have become especially persistent in Georgia in recent years, as the number of religious crises and conflicts has increased significantly. In this regard, our paper is dedicated to exploring one of the crucial events in Georgia: the so-called “Cyanide Case”. We will endeavor to reveal the angle from which the Georgian media covered the crisis.


As unimaginable as it may seem, it was the manner of the request for the accused clergyman to receive the rite of communion, including the making of this request by atheist celebrities at the rally, that triggered the discrimination against the church. It is noteworthy that after calling for providing Giorgi Mamaladze with the communion, the attack on the church continued with another request to make a demand to His Holiness and Beatitude Illia II of Georgia to mediate with the President to grant a pardon to the Dean in parallel with the deteriorating health of the clergyman. In due time, they were forced to at least acknowledge the power of the Patriarch’s word. One could not easily forget one simple detail of Georgian law providing for the initiation of early release due to deteriorating health; though, the authors of this request needed to create the image of a persecuted person by the church through the arrested Dean.


Keywords: the “Cyanide Case”; the Patriarchal Throne; the Attack on the Church; the Patriarch in Germany.


Strategic Communications, (contracted to “StratCom”) as a separate field/profession, is still in the process of formation and, consequently, is not fully studied yet, especially in Georgia. Moreover, even the individuals working in this field find it difficult to properly understand the importance and functions of “StratCom” and, in general, to distinguish it from communication and information disciplines such as “public relations”. Despite the importance and urgency of the issue (especially in today’s information-laden environment), this topic has not been studied in depth. The present paper directly and clearly confirms that the current definitions of “Strategic Communications” and the authors’ reasoning do not form the basis for creating an independent theoretical framework for the profession, which in turn, would end any professional misunderstandings and also no longer mislead individuals or educational institutions.


Some experts in this field have been trying for years to create a theoretical framework for “Strategic Communications”, which, as a rule, should be a sharp separation of “StratCom” from other related disciplines and set a different scope, goals or objectives for this new discipline. Nevertheless, the above-mentioned attempts fail to lead us to the desired result. The use of “Strategic Communications” as an information discipline in professional, educational institutions or government agencies is done by “individual” interpretation of certain persons and/or groups. A good and clear example of this issue is the statement made by the Deputy Minister of Defense of the Czech Republic, Jan Havranek, noting that strategic communication is often confused with “public relations” or even political technologies. Compared to the complicated situation in the “West”, the case is even worse on its periphery, for example in Georgia, where the import of knowledge and experience on the “StratCom” started from the “West”. The purpose of this paper is to provide the public with a critical understanding of the existing definitions of “strategic communications” and, secondly, to share with them a discussion of the relevance regarding our vision of strategic communications.

The paper uses all the basic literature that would more or less enable us to discuss the existing terms, show us the essence of the problem and help us to achieve the purpose of the publication: to explain the “Strategic Communications”, to establish/understand the relevance of the vision.


Keywords: Strategic Communications, Glossary, Public Relations, Planned Communication, Information Environment.


Agencification has been a recent trend on the agenda of public administration reforms in a number of countries. The concept of Agencification implies the rearrangement of the relation between the central government and the agencies as a result of delegation of tasks. Agencification process has been mostly driven by international organizations such as the OECD, IMF and the World Bank with the aim to introduce a “business-like” efficiency-oriented model in public sector in order to improve the performance and to raise the accountability. The following study explores the Agencification processes in the education sector of Georgia. Six agencies operating under the aegis of Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia have been examined.


The empirical study shows that the relationship between the Ministry and the studied agencies goes beyond the classical model of principal-agent relationship and is based more on collaboration and cooperation principles. Shortcomings regarding the legal framework, old-fashioned performance measurement and performance management methods, constant reforms and structural changes put challenge to Agencification process. Furthermore, in the context of Georgia, there is no evidence that external actors – international organizations had an impact on the Agencification process in this very specific policy field. It was more an internal decision.


Keywords: Agencification, LEPLs, Education sector, principal-agent theory, legal framework.


The concept of statute of limitations in the material sense is closely related to procedural law. Restoration of a violated right of a person is carried out by filing a lawsuit in court. That is why it is crucial to analyze the issue of the impact of the statute of limitations on individual civil litigation. The article is devoted to the study of the issue of the impact of certain procedural actions, including the suitability of the party, the rejection of the claim, investigating the issues related to the impact of filing a claim on the statute of limitations. In general, it should be taken into account that the given procedural actions have important legal consequences for the party, although it is essential to consider these procedural actions in terms of statute of limitations, in particular, to assess whether the plaintiff or defendant’s involvement in legal action leads to the termination of statute of limitations.


In general, it should be noted that the filing of a claim by a proper plaintiff constitutes a means of terminating the statute of limitations on the claim, although the party’s inadequate consideration substantially alters the legal status. In addition, the legal consequences of a denial of a claim are not unequivocally identified by law, in particular, it is unclear whether a waiver of a claim is a valid remedy for termination of the statute of limitations. Based on the principle of definiteness, a clear regulation should be established regarding the given issue. However, in the current legislative regulation, no obvious impact of filing a claim is identified before initiating the lawsuit on the statute of limitations. The article also devotes to the analysis of the peculiarities of making a judgment in absentia in the statute of limitations and the application of the statute of limitations in the court of higher instance. It should be noted that there is a heterogeneous approach to the named issues, which, given the essence of the statute of limitations, may lead to a violation of the legitimate interest of the person. An in-depth study of the mentioned issues is presented and recommendations are proposed to ensure the identification and uniform explanation of the issues.


Keywords: statute of limitations, case proceedings, provision, judgment in absentia, impact, termination, counterclaim.


Since the Association Agreement, the countries have been obliged to implement a number of laws, and the implementation of the implementation in different ways has caused many problems and legislative differences. This paper discusses the problems arising during the implementation of the Directive of the European Parliament and Council N2008 / 48 / EC “On consumer credit agreements”, both in Georgian and in other countries and in international law. The article presents the problems that have arisen during the development of the Directive and the international strategies that annually announce certain shortcomings and issue recommendations for solutions. In addition to international strategies, the Action Plan for European Integration of the Parliament of Georgia for 2018-20201 is discussed, according to which the problems are not only evident at the implementation stage, but also indicate a general malfunction of the executive structure and imperfect staff. The plan shows the low quality of compliance with international standards, and as for the directives, their novelty is clearly felt in the Georgian legislation and, therefore, it needs to amend a number of norms. It is noteworthy that legislative novelty is also problematic in practice, and we still find scarcely solutions where the dispute is resolved by consumer law.


In addition to Georgian law, this problem is also mentioned in international practice, for example in relation to certain terms, which are given in a very broad definition in the Directive. In particular, their uncertainty leads to their own interpretation by states and judges, which ultimately leads to different practices. Such a difference is detrimental not only to the customer, who is not required to be aware of the essence of the norms, but also he can not understand how the dispute can be resolved and can not even understand what words can be used by the parties to the contract, obligations.


KEY WORDS: Implementation, User, Legislative distance, Consumer protection.


Existence of investment policy and investments in general play an important role in boosting the country’s economy and maintaining the growth trends of macroeconomic factors. The Georgian economy at the policy level determines the need to achieve a large scale of both foreign direct investment and domestic investment. Consequently, the opportunities of the Georgian economy are directly related to the volume of investments, and the volume of investments is conditioned by the existence of an effective and efficient investment climate in the country. Which institutional factor holds the greatest weight in the investment environment? – Tax policy is one of the most important issues among institutional factors. For the reason of economic stimulation and development, Georgian government adopted changes in relation to entrepreneurship activates.


Various researches and prognosis were made regarding implementation of so called “Estonian Model” of profit tax by Governmental, Business and Academic bodies. Pre and post reform period arose many questions and the answers are still vague. What contribution was made by the reform for encouragement of the Foreign Direct Investments? How has the labor productivity been increased? How has the reform simplified access to the capital resources? In this research paper the author discusses the Profit tax “Estonian Model” prognosis and expectations as well as analysis of the actual results in Georgia and Estonia. The Author conducts qualitative and critical research methodologies. On the basis of demonstration of the actual circumstances, the reform has been assessed in short and long term perspective.


Keywords: Profit Tax Estonian Model; Corporate Taxation; Tax Burden & FDI; Tax Policy.


The article focusing on “Consumer’s contractual protection scope in European directive and Georgia’s judicial space” determines the consumer’s legal place in the contractual space, where both parties’ autonomy exists in the most effective way. It is the truth that expressing the will gives the consumer power to avoid exploitative arrangements, nevertheless, the “weaker party” is often deprived of the opportunity to get acquainted with every article of the agreement at the pre-contract negotiation stage. Moreover, the customer is often left with no choice but to join the contract.


Precisely the government should balance the rights of weak and strong sides, it must protect citizens from unfair contractual terms. In 2014 Georgia took a big step towards European integration when it signed the Association Agreement. The 13th chapter obligates the country to protect and ensure the realization of consumer’s rights. In the article, we review specific EU directives with the comparative-legislative methods, that establish principal definitions of protection against unfair contractual terms to the countries. The article also contains directives about consumer rights and conceptual issues of the credit line directives. The article demonstrates the interpretation of the court of justice, the approach to national legislation and international practice, that will ultimately help the target group to understand and protect the principles of consumer rights.


The presented article is a big step forward to strengthening the field of “consumer rights”.


Keywords: weak party, corporative piercing, incorporation, harmonization plan, directive, regulation, Euro commission.